Recent decades have seen greater and greater use of laparoscopy, or keyhole surgery, when people need an operation on their abdomen. There are now dozens of Cochrane Reviews of this, for a wide variety of conditions and, in October 2018, the one for laparoscopy versus laparotomy, or open surgery, for women with early stage endometrial cancer was updated. The review is led by Khadra Galaal from the Royal Cornwall Hospital in Truro in the UK and she tells us the latest findings in this podcast.
When someone mentions the workplace and health, our first thoughts might be about safety and avoiding accidents, but workplaces also provide an opportunity for interventions to improve the general health of employees. Luke Wolfenden of the University of Newcastle in Callaghan, Australia and colleagues have looked into this and we asked him to tell us what they found for their new Cochrane Review, published in November 2018.
Doctors looking after newborn babies need to be able to detect infections early and accurately if they are to prevent the baby from becoming seriously ill. One of the tests suggested for doing this is to measure their c-reactive protein and this was assessed in a new Cochrane Review in January 2019. We asked the lead author, Jennifer Brown from the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination at the University of York in the UK, to tell us why this review is so important and what it found.
Wrist fractures are the most common bone injury in children, causing much pain, distress and life impact for them and their families. In a comprehensive Cochrane Review from December 2018, Joanne Elliott, Managing Editor of the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group based at the University of Manchester in the UK and colleagues, also based in the UK, look at a variety of interventions that are used for these fractures and she outlines the findings in this podcast.
The Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Group is producing a series of reviews on drugs for the treatment of people with neuropathic pain. One of these, published in March 2018, examines the effects of cannabis-based medicines and we asked one of the authors, Martin Mücke from the University Hospital of Bonn in Germany, to outline the findings in this podcast.
The use of pain-relieving drugs during labour is common throughout the world, and an updated Cochrane Review from June 2018 looks at the use of a class of drugs called opioids. Lead author, Lesley Smith from Oxford Brookes University in the UK tells us what they found.
Cerebrolysin for acute ischaemic stroke9 Jan 2019
When someone has an acute ischemic stroke, urgent effective, simple and reliable treatments will reduce their risks of disability or dying from their brain tissue damage. The treatments used vary around the world, and a drug called cerebrolysin is widely used in post-Soviet countries, Eastern Europe, Central and Southeast Asia. In April 2017, the latest update of this review was published by researchers from Kazan Federal University in Russia and Chinara Razzakova, a PhD student from the university interviewed one of the authors, Liliya Eugenevna, for this podcast.
Up to 70 million people worldwide have epilepsy and there are many Cochrane Reviews of ways to treat it. These include reviews that work with the original researchers to gather data on everyone who was in their studies, to perform individual participant data meta-analyses. In June 2018, Sarah Nevitt and colleagues from the University of Liverpool in the UK updated one of these reviews, comparing two commonly used drugs, lamotrigine and carbamazepine.
A common consequence for people who have a stroke is a reduction in their arm function. Various approaches are available to try to help and, in September 2018, the Cochrane Review for one of these, electromechanical and robot‐assisted arm training, was updated by a team of researchers from Germany. We asked lead author, Jan Mehrholz from Dresden Medical School, to tell us about the latest findings in this podcast.
Omega-3 fatty acid addition during pregnancy23 Nov 2018
Omega-3 fats are the subject of more than two dozen Cochrane Reviews for conditions including cardiovascular health, dementia and gastrointestinal problems. In November 2018, the review on the effects on preterm birth when these are taken by pregnant women was updated. The review was led by Associate Professor Philippa Middleton and Professor Maria Makrides, from the Healthy Mothers Babies and Children theme at the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute. Professor Makrides tells us about the latest evidence.
It is widely recognised that more emphasis needs to be given to the role of the patient in making decisions about their health care. But what are the best ways to make this happen? Some of the answers are in the July 2018 update of a Cochrane Review on shared decision making and we asked the lead author, France Légaré from Université Laval in Québec Canada, to tell us why this is important and what they found.
Evidence Aid, an organisation dedicated to improving the use of evidence in humanitarian crises, highlights information from Cochrane and other systematic reviews of particular relevance to those involved in humanitarian assistance and, in July 2018, these were added to by a report on psychological therapies for the treatment of mental disorders in low- and middle-income countries. We asked one of the authors, Marianna Purgato from the University of Verona in Italy, to tell us about this new Cochrane Review.
There are more than 20 Cochrane Reviews of interventions that might be used in the care of children with autism spectrum disorder. In July 2018, these were added to with an assessment of the accuracy of tests for this condition. Senior author, Katrina Williams from the Department of Paediatrics at the University of Melbourne in Australia, tells us what they found in this podcast.
Patients who require general anaesthesia or ventilation to help them breathe while in intensive care, need a clear airway. This is usually achieved by inserting a tube to help air reach their lungs and a new Cochrane Review from May 2018 examines the evidence for different tests to help doctors assess how difficult this might be for patients with no immediately obvious problems with their breathing. We asked one of the authors, Jasmin Arrich from the Medical University of Vienna in Austria, to tell us what they found.
Most Cochrane Reviews look at the effects of interventions on health, but a growing number are providing g evidence on the accuracy of different ways of diagnosing a disease. These were added to in August 2018 by a new review on a test used in the management of tuberculosis. The review’s first author, Mikashmi Kohli from McGill University in Montreal Canada, sets the scene and tells us what they found in this podcast.
Acute otitis media is a common infection in children, with research showing that up to four in every five children in high-income countries will have at least one episode by the age of three. Influenza vaccines have been suggested as a way to prevent this, and an updated Cochrane Review from October 2017 looks at the latest evidence. Here’s the review’s lead author, Norhayati from the Universiti Sains Malaysia in Kubang Kerian, Malaysia, to tell us more.
Venous leg ulcers are the most common type of lower leg wound, affecting up to three people in every 1000 in some studies. Gill Norman from the University of Manchester in the UK, and colleagues, looked at the trials of dressings and topical agents in a new Cochrane Review in June 2018, and we asked Gill to outline their findings in this podcast.
Cystic fibrosis is a common inherited condition, particularly affecting people from a northern European background. It's caused by various mutations of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator gene, shortened to "CFTR". A new Cochrane Review from August 2018 examines a class of drug that aims to correct the basic defect for people with CF with a specific mutation, and we asked lead author, Kevin Southern from the University of Liverpool in the UK, to tell us what they found.
There are concerns across the world about the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes, increasing the importance of evidence for effective ways to prevent this condition. In a December 2017 update to the Cochrane Review, Bianca Hemmingsen from Herlev University Hospital in Denmark and colleagues have summarized the latest evidence on the effects of diet and physical activity for people with intermediate hyperglycaemia or prediabetes. We asked Bianca to tell us what they found in this podcast.
The Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group specialises in reviews that assess, among other things, ways to reduce hazardous or harmful drinking of alcohol. One of these reviews looks at the evidence on practitioner-delivered brief interventions and we asked one of the authors, Fiona Beyer from Newcastle University in the UK to tell us about the findings from the update in February 2018.
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