Interventions for renal vasculitis in adults23 Mar 2017
Renal vasculitis causes damage to the small blood vessels inside the kidneys and – when untreated – leads to a rapid loss of kidney function. Therapies that block the immune system to switch off the vasculitis process are available but can lead to serious infections and other long term complications. As vasculitis is uncommon, it has been difficult to establish the most effective and safest treatment, because studies have often been too small to detect these effects reliably. One way to try to overcome this, is to combine the results of similar studies and, in September 2015, Giles Walters and his colleagues in Australia did this by updating the Cochrane Review of studies of treatments to induce and maintain disease remission for renal vasculitis. Giles tells us what they found in this podcast.
One of the complications after surgery, is that the patient might develop an infection at the site of the wound. Clare Heal from the James Cook University in Mackay in Australia and colleagues have investigated the effects of applying antibiotics to the skin to prevent this in a new Cochrane Review, published in November 2016. She tells us what they found in this podcast.
Emollients and moisturisers for eczema21 Mar 2017
Eczema is a common chronic skin disease that affects many people worldwide, and they will often turn to creams to help. In a new Cochrane Review from February 2017, Zbys Fedorowicz from Cochrane Bahrain and colleagues have brought together the relevant evidence from nearly 80 trials and we asked him to describe their findings.
Babies who are born preterm or have very low birth weight struggle to survive and need intensive care. Even if they do survive, they are at high risk of chronic lung disease and corticosteroids are one of the treatments used to prevent this. In an updated Cochrane Review from January 2017, Vibhuti Shah from the University of Toronto in Canada and colleagues have reviewed the latest evidence on the use of inhaled corticosteroids and tells us about it in this podcast.
It is generally recommended that babies should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life, but most are given some additional fluids or foods during this period. In August 2016, Hazel Smith from Our Lady's Children's Hospital in Dublin and Genevieve Becker from BEST services in Galway in Ireland updated the Cochrane Review of the randomised trials and we asked Hazel to tell us about their current findings in this podcast.
Several dozen Cochrane Reviews examine the effects of methods to help people quit smoking. A new review in November 2016 adds to this evidence by considering interventions targeted at people with substance use disorders. We asked lead author, Dorie Apollonio from the University of California San Francisco in the USA, to tell us what they found in this podcast.
There is considerable interest in detecting vesicoureteral reflux in children, a condition in which urine can flow backwards from the bladder to the kidney, and cause kidney damage. It can be diagnosed with a test called a voiding cystourethrogram, but this is invasive and exposes children to x-rays. It’s important therefore to find other accurate methods and a new Cochrane Review from July 2016 evaluated two possible alternative imaging tests as ways to identify children who have vesicoureteral reflux and are at higher risks of long-term kidney damage, but with less discomfort and radiation than a voiding cystourethrogram. The review was done by Dr. Nader Shaikh and colleagues from the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in the USA. In this evidence pod, his colleague, Dr Stephanie Hum tells us what they found.
As the number of systematic reviews grows, there is an increasing need for overviews in which the findings from multiple reviews in the same general area is brought together. This happened for symptomatic treatments for motor neurone disease in January 2017 and lead author on this new Cochrane Overview, Louisa Ng from the Royal Melbourne Hospital in Australia spoke with Brian Dickie from the UK Motor Neurone Disease Association about the evidence.
Support for breastfeeding mothers1 Mar 2017
Several reviews from the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group present evidence on ways to help mothers to breast feed their babies. In the latest version of one of these, in February 2017, Alison McFadden from the University of Dundee in Scotland and her co-authors present the latest evidence and we asked her to update us in this podcast.
Cochrane has several systematic reviews about the management of patients in intensive care units, covering a wide range of interventions, and the update of one of these in October 2016 brought together the latest evidence on the effects of oral hygiene care. Helen Worthington, one of the authors on the review and Co-ordinating Editor of the Cochrane Oral Health Group at the University of Manchester in the UK tells us more.
Antibiotics are a mainstay of hospital care, widely used to treat bacterial infections, such as pneumonia. However amidst increasing concerns about antibiotic resistance, it’s important to ensure that they are prescribed carefully. In February 2017, Peter Davey from the University of Dundee in the UK and colleagues updated their Cochrane Review of interventions to help with this and he tells us more in this Evidence Pod.
Aspirin is one of the most widely used medicines and there are Cochrane Reviews of its effects for a wide variety of conditions. One of these reviews examines its use in in vitro fertilisation and an update was published in November 2016. Lead author, Harry Siristatidis from the Assisted Reproduction Unit at Attikon University Hospital in Athens Greece brings us up to date in this Evidence Pod.
Several Cochrane Reviews examine surgical techniques to repair hip fractures, and alongside these are reviews of other aspects of the management of people who have broken a hip. For instance, an updated review from November 2016 looks at nutritional supplements in the aftercare of older people who have had a hip fracture, and one of the authors, Toby Smith from the University of East Anglia in the UK, tells us more in this Evidence Pod.
IgA nephropathy is a kidney condition, leading to kidney failure for many of those who are affected. About 10-20% of patients require dialysis or a kidney transplant within 10 years, and 30-40% within 20 years, from their disease onset. This long time between diagnosis and kidney failure makes it difficult to establish the most effective and safest treatment. In August 2015, Marinella Ruospo and her colleagues from Bari, Italy updated their Cochrane Review of immunosuppressive therapies and she tells us what they have found in this Evidence pod.
Low-back pain is a very common problem, and a variety of treatments have been assessed in Cochrane Reviews. In January 2017, this collection was added to by Susan Wieland from the University of Maryland School of Medicine in the USA and colleagues, when we published their review of the effects of yoga for chronic, non-specific low-back pain. We asked Susan to tell us about the review and the implications of its findings.
The ear infection, acute otitis media, brings many children into contact with healthcare practitioners and finding ways to prevent it would have obvious benefits for the children, their families and the healthcare system. In August 2016, a group of researchers from Canada, led by Amir Azarpazhooh from the University of Toronto updated their Cochrane Review and he tells us what they found in this Evidence Pod.
Sickle cell disease is a lifelong, inherited disorder which can cause complications throughout an individual's life. In a new Cochrane Review from October 2016, Monika Asnani and colleagues from the Caribbean Institute for Health Research at the University of the West Indies in Kingston Jamaica bring together the evidence on ways to improve the knowledge of patients and their caregivers. She outlines their findings in this Evidence Pod.
One of the most widely used devices in medicine is the central venous catheter, allowing direct access to a patient’s blood stream. However, it can cause infections and the use of antiseptics on the skin is one way to minimise this risk. Nai Ming Lai from the School of Medicine in Taylor's University in Malaysia has worked with colleagues to examine the relevant evidence and led the Cochrane Review, published in July 2016.
Alongside increasing efforts to deliver health care remotely, there is a need for research to assess the effects of these new approaches. In a new Cochrane Review from December 2016, Pawel Posadzki from the Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine in Singapore, and colleagues bring together the evidence on automated telephone communication systems. We asked Pawel to tell us what they found.
Stomach cancer is the fifth most common cancer and third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Molecular-targeted therapy is one of the newer treatments and a new Cochrane Review in July 2016 looks at the evidence from randomized trials. Lead author, Huan Song from the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, tells us more in this Evidence Pod.
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